Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate
Rheumatic disorders: As adjunctive therapy for short-term administration (to tide the patient over an acute episode or exacerbation) in: post-traumatic osteoarthritis, synovitis of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis including juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (selected cases may require low-dose maintenance therapy), acute and sub-acute bursitis, epicondylitis, acute nonspecific tenosynovitis, acute gouty arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis.
Collagen diseases: During an exacerbation or as maintenance therapy in selected cases of Systemic lupus erythematosus and acute rheumatic carditis
Dermatologic diseases: Pemphigus,Severe erythema multiforme (Stevens-Johnson syndrome), Exfoliative dermatitis, Bullous dermatitis herpetiformis, Severe seborrheic dermatitis,Severe psoriasis, Mycosis fungoides
Allergic states: Control of severe or incapacitating allergic conditions intractable to adequate trials of conventional treatment in bronchial asthma, contact dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, serum sickness, seasonal or perennial allergic rhinitis, drug hypersensitivity reactions, urticarial transfusion reactions, acute non-infectious laryngeal edema (epinephrine is the drug of first choice)
Ophthalmic diseases: Severe acute and chronic allergic and inflammatory processes involving the eye, such as: herpes zoster ophthalmicus, iritis, iridocyclitis, chorioretinitis, diffuse posterior uveitis and choroiditis, optic neuritis, sympathetic ophthalmia, anterior segment inflammation, allergic conjunctivitis, keratitis, allergic corneal marginal ulcers.
Gastrointestinal diseases: To tide the patient over a critical period of the disease in ulcerative colitis (systemic therapy), regional enteritis (systemic therapy) Respiratory diseases Symptomatic sarcoidosis, berylliosis, fulminating or disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis when used concurrently with appropriate anti-tuberculous chemotherapy, Loeffler’s syndrome not manageable by other means, aspiration pneumonitis.
Hematologic disorders: Acquired (autoimmune) hemolytic anemia, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura in adults (I.V. only: I.M administration is contraindicated), secondary thrombocytopenia in adults, erythroblastopenia (RBC anemia), congenital (erythroid) hypoplasticanemia
Neoplastic diseases: For palliative management of leukemias and lymphomas in adults, acute leukemia of childhood.
Edematous states: To induce diuresis or remission of proteinuria in the nephrotic syndrome, without uremia, of the idiopathic type or that due to lupus erythematosus.
Miscellaneous: Tuberculous meningitis with subarachnoid block or impending block when used concurrently with appropriate antituberculous chemotherapy,Trichinosis with neurologic or myocardial involvement
Cerebral Edema: Cerebral Edema associated with primary or metastatic brain tumor, craniotomy, or head injury. Use in cerebral edema is not a substitute for careful neurosurgical evaluation and definitive management such as neurosurgery or other specific therapy.
May also be useful in cystic tumors of an aponeurosis or tendon (ganglia).
Dosage & Administration
Inflammatory joint diseases:
- Adult: 0.8-4 mg depending on the size of the affected joint. For soft-tissue inj, 2-6 mg may be used. May repeat inj every 3-5 days to every 2-3 wk.
Prophylaxis of nausea and vomiting associated with cytotoxic therapy:
- Adult: Prevention: 10-20 mg 15-30 minutes before admin of chemotherapy on each treatment day. For continuous infusion regimen: 10 mg every 12 hr on each treatment day. For midly emetogenic regimen: 4 mg every 4-6 hr.
- Adult: As phosphate: Initially, 40 mg or 1-6 mg/kg as a single IV inj, may repeat every 2-6 hr. Continue high-dose treatment only until patient’s condition has stabilised and not to be continued beyond 48-72 hr.
- Adult: 0.15 mg/kg 4 times daily, to be given 10-20 min before or with the 1st dose of anti-infective treatment. Treatment should be given for the first 2-4 days of the anti-infective treatment.
- Child: As phosphate: 2 mth-18 yr: 150 mcg/kg every 6 hr for 4 days, starting before or with 1st dose of antibacterial treatment.
Cerebral oedema caused by malignancy:
- Adult: As phosphate: 10 mg IV followed by 4 mg IM every 6 hr until response is achieved, usually after 12-24 hr. May reduce dosage after 2-4 days then gradually discontinued over 5-7 days. In severe cases, an initial dose of 50 mg IV may be given on day 1, with 8 mg every 2 hr, reduced gradually over 7-13 days. Maintenance dose: 2 mg 2-3 times daily.
- Child: As phosphate: 35 kg: Initially 25 mg, then 4 mg every 2 hr for 3 days, then 4 mg every 4 hr for 1 day, then 4 mg every 6 hr for 4 days, then decrease by 2 mg daily. Doses are given via IV inj.
- Adult: 0.75-9 mg daily in 2-4 divided doses; may also be given via IM/IV admin.
- Child: 1 mth-18 yr: 10-100 mcg/kg daily in 1-2 divided doses via oral admin, adjusted according to response; up to 300 micrograms/kg daily may be used in emergency situations.
Screening test for Cushing’s syndrome:
- Adult: 0.5 mg every 6 hr for 48 hr after determining baseline 24-hr urinary 17-hydroxycorticosteroid (17-OHCS) concentrations. During the second 24 hr of dexamethasone admin, urine is collected and analysed for 17-OHCS. Alternatively, after a baseline plasma cortisol determination, 1 mg may be given at 11 pm and plasma cortisol determined at 8 am the next morning. Plasma cortisol and urinary output of 17-OHCS are depressed after dexamethasone admin in normal individuals but remain at basal levels in patients with Cushing’s syndrome.
Acute exacerbations in multiple sclerosis:
- Adult: 30 mg daily for 1 wk followed by 4-12 mg daily for 1 mth.
- Child: 1 mth-12 yr: 100-400 mcg/kg daily in 1-2 divided doses; 12-18 yr: Initially 0.5-24 mg daily. Max. 24 mg daily.
Relative contraindications include the followings: patient with Cushing’s syndrome, Osteoporosis, Diabetes mellitus, renal insufficiency, gastrointestinal ulcers, systemic fungal infection & acute infection.