Bupropion Hydrochloride is indicated in the treatment of depression. Bupropion is also indicated in smoking cessation.
Atypical anti-depressant drugs
Bupropion is a selective inhibitor of the neuronal re-uptake of catecholamines (noradrenaline and dopamine) with minimal effect on the re-uptake of indolamines (serotonin) and does not inhibit monoamine oxidase. While the mechanism of action of bupropion, as with other antidepressants is unknown, it is presumed that this action is mediated by noradrenergic and/or dopaminergic mechanisms.
The usual adult target dose for Bupropion is 300 mg/day, given as 150 mg, twice daily. Dosing should begin at 150 mg/day given as a single daily dose in the morning. If the 150 mg initial dose is adequately tolerated, an increase to the 300 mg/day target dose, given as 150 mg twice daily, may be made as early as day 4 of dosing. There should be an interval of at least 8 hours between successive doses.
Increasing the dosage above 300 mg/day: As with other antidepressants, the full antidepressant effect of Bupropion Hydrochloride may not be evident until 4 weeks of treatment or longer. An increase in dosage to the maximum of 400 mg/day, given as 200 mg twice daily, may be considered for patients in whom no clinical improvement is noted after several weeks of treatment at 300 mg/day. Bupropion Hydrochloride should be discontinued in patients who do not demonstrate an adequate response after an appropriate period of treatment at 450 mg/day.
Maintenance: The lowest dose that maintains remission is recommended. Although it is not known how long the patient should remain on Bupropion Hydrochloride, it is generally recognised that acute episodes of depression require several months or longer of antidepressant drug treatment.
Bupropion should not be given concurrently with or within 14 days of stopping an MAOI. The use of alcohol should be minimised or avoided completely because it may alter the seizure threshold. Similarly, other drugs that lower the seizure threshold, such as other antidepressants, antimalarials, antipsychotics, sedating antihistamines, Quinolones, Tramadol, Theophylline, or systemic corticosteroids, should be used with extreme caution together with Bupropion. Carbamazepine, Phenobarbital, or Phenytoin may induce the metabolism of Bupropion while other drugs such as Cimetidine or Ritonavir may inhibit its metabolism. Interaction may occur between Bupropion and Orphenadrine, Cyclophosphamide, and Ifosfamide. Caution should be exercised when it is given with drugs such as some antidepressants, antipsychotics, β blockers, and type 1C antiarrhythmics.
It is contraindicated in patients with a seizure disorder. Bupropion Hydrochloride is contraindicated in patients treated with other medications that contain Bupropion because the incidence of seizure is dose dependent. Bupropion may induce seizure and consequently its use is contraindicated in patients with epilepsy. The drug is also contraindicated in patients with a current or prior diagnosis of bulimia or anorexia nervosa because of a higher incidence of seizures noted in such patients treated for bulimia with Bupropion Hydrochloride. The concurrent administration of Bupropion Hydrochloride and a monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor is contraindicated. At least 14 days should elapse between discontinuation of MAO inhibitor and initiation of treatment with Bupropion Hydrochloride. Bupropion Hydrochloride is contraindicated in patients who have shown an allergic response to Bupropion or the other ingredients that make up Bupropion Hydrochloride.
Agitation, anxiety, and insomnia often occur during the initial stages of Bupropion therapy. Other relatively common side effects reported with Bupropion include fever, dry mouth, headache or migraine, dizziness, nausea and vomiting, constipation, tremor, sweating, and skin rashes. Hypersensitivity reactions, ranging from pruritus and urticaria, less commonly, angio-oedema, dyspnoea, and anaphylactoid reactions have been reported.
Category C. There are no adequate and well controlled studies in pregnant women. This drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
Lactation: Bupropion and its metabolites are secreted in human milk. Because Bupropion is excreted in human milk, a decision should be made whether to discontinue breast feeding or to discontinue the drug.
It should be used with extreme caution, in patients with history of seizure disorders or in patients with other predisposing factors such as severe hepatic cirrhosis or a CNS tumour, and in those undergoing abrupt withdrawal from alcohol or Benzodiazepines. The use of Bupropion in patients with other risk factors for seizures (for example, alcohol abuse, a history of head trauma, diabetes, and drugs known to lower the seizure threshold) should only be undertaken when there are compelling clinical reasons. Bupropion should be used with caution in patients with bipolar depression or psychoses and in patients with a recent history of myocardial infarction or unstable heart disease and in hepatic or renal impairment.
: In addition to those events reported under Adverse Reactions, overdose has resulted in symptoms including drowsiness, loss of consciousness and electrocardiogram (ECG) changes eg, conduction disturbances or (including QRS prolongation) arrhythmias; cases of fatal outcome have been reported.
Treatment: In the event of overdose, hospitalisation is advised. ECG and vital signs should be monitored. Ensure an adequate airway, oxygenation and ventilation. The use of activated charcoal is recommended. No specific antidote for bupropion is known. Further management should be as clinically indicated or as recommended by the national poisons centre, where available.
Child and adolescent: Not recommended for child and adolescent under 18 years of age