Glyceryl Trinitrate (Nitroglycerin)
Nitroglycerin Spray is indicated for acute relief of an attack or prophylaxis of angina pectoris due to coronary artery disease.
Nitroglycerin Injection is indicated for the treatment of peri-operative hypertension; for controlling of congestive heart failure in the setting of acute myocardial infarction; for treatment of angina pectoris in patients who have not responded to sublingual nitroglycerin and beta blockers and for induction of Intraoperative hypotension.
Dosage & Administration
Tablet or Capsule-
Adults and Elderly Patients: Dosage should be adjusted to the requirements of the individual patient but will usually be 1 or 2 tablets taken three times daily. The lowest effective dose should be used.
At the onset of an attack, 1 or 2 metered sprays should be administered under the tongue. No more than 3 metered sprays are recommended within a 15-minute period. If the chest pain persists, prompt medical attention is recommended. Nitroglycerin Spray may be used prophylactically 5 to 10 minutes prior to engaging in activities which might precipitate an acute attack.
Nitroglycerin injection is a concentrated, potent drug which must be diluted in dextrose (5%) injection or sodium chloride (0.9%) injection prior to its infusion. Nitroglycerin injection should not be mixed with other drugs. This is not for direct intravenous injection.
Initial Dilution: Aseptically transfer the contents of one nitroglycerin ampoule (containing 50 mg of nitroglycerin) into a 500 ml glass bottle of either Dextrose (5%) Injection or Sodium Chloride Injection (0.9%). This yields a final concentration of 100mcg/ml.
Maintenance Dilution: It is important to consider the fluid requirements of the patient as well as the expected duration of infusion in selecting the appropriate dilution of Nitroglycerin Injection. After the initial dosage titration, the concentration of the solution may be increased, if necessary, to limit fluids given to the patient. The nitroglycerin concentration should not exceed 400 mcg/ml.
Pregnancy & Lactation
Nursing Mothers: It is not known whether nitroglycerin is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when Nitroglycerin spray is administered to a nursing woman.
Management: Increase central fluid volume through passive elevation of patient’s legs. IV infusion of normal saline or similar fluid may also be necessary. Methylene blue infusion may be given in case of methaemoglobinaemia. Administer oxygen if necessary.
Use in Special Population
Use in children: Safety and efficacy for use in children has not been established.