Acute lupus erythematosus, Kawasaki disease and dermatomyositis sarcoidosis, Lyme disease, Malaria, Porphyria cutanea tarda, Q fever, Rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren’s syndrome, Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
Anti-malarial drugs, Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), Drugs used for Rheumatoid Arthritis
Hydroxychloroquine is a 4-aminoquinoline antimalarial with actions similar to those of chloroquine but is mainly used in the treatment of SLE and rheumatoid arthritis. It interferes with digestive vacuole function within susceptible malarial parasites by increasing pH and interrupting with lysosomal degradation of Hb thus impeding normal cell function of sensitive parasites.
- Adult: Initially, 800 mg followed by 400 mg 6-8 hr later, then a further 400 mg on each of the succeeding 2 days.
- Child: 13 mg/kg; followed by 6.5 mg/kg 6 hr later and repeat dose on the 2nd and 3rd days.
Prophylaxis of malaria:
- Adult: 400 mg every 7 days. Begin 2 wk before exposure, continue for 4-6 wk after leaving the endemic area.
- Child: 6.5 mg/kg once wkly. Max: 400 mg/dose.
Rheumatoid arthritis, Systemic lupus erythematosus:
- Adult: Initially, 400 mg daily in divided doses. Maintenance: 200-400 mg/day. Max: 6.5 mg/kg/day or 400 mg/day whichever is lower.
- Child: Up to 6.5 mg/kg/day or 400 mg/day whichever is lower. Lowest effective dose should be used.
Cimetidine may increase serum levels of hydroxychloroquine. Its absorption may be decreased by kaolin or Mg trisilicate. Avoid digoxin and alcohol. Increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias when used with halofantrine. Concurrent use with mefloquine may increase the risk of convulsions.
Retinal or visual field changes, known hypersensitivity. Long-term use in children.
Generally Hydroxychloroquine Sulphate is well tolerated. However, few side effects like nausea, vomiting, stomach upset, loss of appetite, diarrhea, tiredness, weakness or headache and visual problem may occur the first several days.
Pregnancy category C. During pregnancy, this drug should be used only if clearly needed. Since small amounts of this medication are found in breast milk consult your doctor before medication.
Impaired liver or renal function, severe GI disorders, porphyria, psoriasis, neurological disorders especially a history of epilepsy, myasthenia gravis, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, pregnancy, lactation. Monitor CBC in patients receiving prolonged therapy. Perform baseline and periodic 6-mth eye exams, test periodically for muscle weakness.
Symptoms of overdose consist of headache, drowsiness, visual disturbances, cardiovascular collapse, and convulsions, followed by sudden and early respiratory and cardiac arrest. Gastric lavage until the stomach is completely emptied.
Treatment should be prompt and symptomatic as symptoms appear quickly
Store below 30° C.